The Botanical Garden

von by Marianne Klemun Original aufOriginal in German, angezeigt aufdisplayed in English
PublishedErschienen: 2019-06-03
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    Botanical gardens represent both an artificial and natural space for the directed interaction of man with nature. They enable unique encounters not only with plants, but also with botanical knowledge. Indeed, it is the explicit reference to knowledge that has distinguished the botanical garden from other garden forms from the beginning of the 16th century. Living and dried plant collections have been used to produce botanical knowledge. Furthermore, a botanical garden constitutes a place of learning and education based on "contemplation". Over the course of four centuries, research, study, communication, design, and the acquisition of botanical knowledge have undergone transformation in different contexts: The functions of botanical gardens changing as a result. The Garden of Eden and Noah's Ark served as first symbolic references. Starting as a mere inspiration, they gained new influence in the public sphere as archetypes from the 18th century. Botanical institutions – such as the famous garden directed by botanist Carl von Linné (1707–1778) in Uppsala – derived their global relevance from the utopian ideal of achieving an overall picture of the plant world. Since the last century, most botanical gardens have been dedicated to the conservation of endangered plant species. Open to the public worldwide and currently represented in more than 1,400 locations, the botanical garden as known today has proven to be a flourishing, multi-functional knowledge and research center.

    InhaltsverzeichnisTable of Contents


    Like other spaces1 for the acquisition of knowledge, such as the laboratory, botanical gardens are not just tools2 to help generate botanical knowledge, they in fact constitute botany as such.3 The first gardens were created in the early modern period at European universities: in and between 1543 and 1545, followed by , , (1563) and (1587) etc.4 In addition to close ties with universities, which still prevail today, other institutions also acted as sponsors of botanical gardens. Thus, in 1673, the "Society of Apothecaries" established the "Chelsea Physic Garden"John Haynes, An Accurate Survey of the Physic Garden, 1751 in , which maintained connections with other botanical gardens and, as a result, was committed to regularly supplying new herbarium records to the most important English research institution, the "Royal Society".5 Academies began setting up gardens, such as the "Royal Prussian Society of Sciences" in Berlin, initiated by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716) in 1711, which was entrusted with the former show garden of the Prussian king in 1718.6 In the 18th century, the economic interest in exotic plants and the competition between European powers led to expeditions and the establishment of characteristic botanical gardens within large palace complexes at courts in , London, ,7 and . In the same century, the botanical garden of LeidenHortus botanicus Leiden Woudanus 1610 in the Netherlands and the Parisian "Jardin de Plantes"Jardin du Roy pour la culture des plantes médécinales, à Paris, 1636, were initially considered to be the most exotic collections of living plants, but were then surpassed by Vienna (in the 1780s) and later by Kew GardensTemperate House in Kew Gardens near London. In the 19th century, the educated bourgeoisie discovered this space of knowledge for themselves for entertainment and aesthetic edification purposes. They organized their own botanical gardens within the framework of horticultural societies and local museum associations. Today, gardens are still run by municipalities, for example in and . With the nationalization of science, botanical gardens were also established as national institutions, often together with natural history museums. In the United States, the first President George Washington (1732–1799) designed the space for the "United States Botanic Garden" near the House of Congress as an integral part of the new capital. The garden was formally established by the "Columbian Institute for the Promotion of Arts and Sciences" in 1820.8 To this day, new botanical gardens are being created worldwide as a result of government initiatives. has followed suit by establishing more than 100 gardens since 1956, whereas one garden was created in () in 1931 and one in in 1989.9

    Regardless of the sponsor, the botanical garden is of European origin. As a result of European colonialism and furthermore acting as its instrument, the first gardens emerged overseas from the mid-18th  century onwards (e.g. in in 1787). In the British Empire, the Kew Gardens was an essential focal point for the colonial gardens in and from the mid-19th century. It continues to serve as a model even today and is probably the most important scientifically managed garden in the world.10

    Understood as a knowledge space, the botanical garden unites dichotomous categories of knowledge, such as practical and theoretical, implicit (tacit knowledge) and explicit, abstract and concrete (real), local and global, uncertain and certain, mediated and secret, grand and mundane knowledge.11 It almost goes without saying that practical, horticultural, and implicit knowledge (manual work), for example, are prerequisites for the care of any garden. The very existence of the botanical garden is permanently dependent on gardening work. Failure to do this work can have fatal consequences for the plant population. If plants are cultivated from foreign climatic zones, however, practical knowledge about them must first be acquired through experiments. A new form of architecture developed in the 19th century due to the construction of greenhouses which were necessary for acclimatization – often initially called "Warm- und Kalthäuser" (warm and cold houses) in German. Characteristic monumental buildings made of iron and glass, such as the new railway stations or the "Crystal Palace"Crystal Palace 1854 of the botanist and architect Joseph Paxton (ca. 1803–1865) in London (1851) produced a new technical design for dome greenhouses, plant rotundas, greenhouses, and palm houses.

    Scientific significance from a spatial and praxeological perspective

    In the botanical garden, plants which are naturally separate from each other are brought together in one place – literally forming "the world in miniature". Direct comparison is only possible by means of an overview or consolidation. In 1671, the Medical Faculty of the University of Freiburg (Methodus docendi medicinam in Facultate medica Universitatis Friburgensis Brisgoiorum) accordingly set out the garden's essential function in this regard:

    ... however, since it is very difficult to find various kinds of herbs and plants, which grow in different places, a garden was once allocated to the Faculty of Medicine in order to plant there what was necessary for this purpose....12

    The advantage of having plants coexisting lies in the possibility of making direct comparisons. In general, the classification of species is based on a specific perception of nature which is affected by cultural change. During the 17th century the traditional concept of the doctrine of signatures, which was based on the assumption that features hidden in the interior had externally visible effects, became obsolete. How did this change, doubtlessly central to the establishment of botany, come about?

    According to the well-known explanation of their origin, the first botanical gardens, known as hortus medicus, were used to showcase medicinal plants.13 The humanists' characteristic written knowledge culture, however, was transformed in the gardens into a visual form of knowledge dissemination, which was tied to the spatial dimension. Other centers of knowledge such as cabinets of curiosities, libraries, anatomical theaters, and laboratories emerged at the same time as botanical gardens. In these spaces, objects could also been seen as carriers of knowledge. For example, the term theatrum became familiar as a designation for books. It contained a reference to the visible and thus referred to the acquisition of knowledge through sight. This form of knowledge acquisition was embedded in a social courtly culture, which is one of the main reasons it was able to manifest itself.14

    In the 16th century, these knowledge spaces gained in importance, especially in the wake of the printing press. Knowledge located in space became permanent.15 For this reason, mnemonics, already established in antiquity, gained renewed interest in the 16th century. According to rhetoric, memory, as the most important element of knowledge, was topologically encoded.16 The urge to acquire knowledge through collection expressed itself in new knowledge spaces. Memories could be "preserved" in books and in libraries. The "theater of memory" projected to the outside what was once attributed to the interior, but which changed through the new spatial practice of appropriating things. Scientific findings and cultural interpretations affected the space. Botany could only understand itself as a descriptive science by concentrating on the external characteristics of plants. The new knowledge spaces allowed the elites to integrate the healing knowledge monopolized by the monasteries as part of the courtly culture. Therefore, it is no coincidence that the monastery gardenKloster Allerheiligen in Schaffhausen, Schweiz, 2009 may be considered a precursor to the botanical garden.

    The visibility postulate went hand in hand with the classification and comparison of individual plants.17 As a result of the European expansion, driven by curiosity and the desire for exotic plants, the transfer of unknown plants into the gardens became a common field of activity for botanists. In order to preserve the experiences scattered over time and space during a herbation, excursion, journey, or expedition, images and descriptions were produced along with the transfer of live plants, seeds, and dried specimens.18 Bruno Latour (born 1947) called them immutable mobiles19 because all document forms could be further processed. While illustrations, descriptions, and the herbarium technique20 were already available in the 16th  century, they began being professionally produced in the 18th century, mainly through the standardization of Carl von Linné's (1707–1778) description methodFolia simplicia 1737.21 The botanical garden was the place where representations and plants collided and were bundled together.

    An unprecedented institutional continuity imparted the botanical garden with significance. Privately run gardens, which also existed, had the disadvantage that they were usually bound to a person's lifetime. To be considered a botanical garden, a number of qualitative criteria had to be met, including the existence of a library, a collection of dried plants (herbarium), and the meticulous recording of cultivated plants and seeds.22 All types of gardens are weeded and harvested, but in the botanical garden all cultivated plants are managed and registered in inventories. These catalogues23 were, on the one hand, a means to control the garden and to cultivate many plants; but on the other, they served the communicative exchange with other gardens, whereby the inventory could be extended. To give a sense of the scale: In mid-19th century , 6,000 to 8,000 seed samples and 500 to 600 pieces of living plants were shipped annually. The garden received 2,000 to 3,000 seed samples and 200 to 300 new plant species for its own inventory.24 This seed documentation can still be found today in many of the gardens' library collections. It shows those gardens with which the site was or still is in exchange. Through these relationships, each botanical garden became an important interchange of its European network.

    Herbarium records	, illustrations, and descriptions circulated from botanist to botanist, from one botanical garden to another. The periphery, for its part, constantly enriched these gardens with still unfamiliar plant material and biodiversity. Returning to Bruno Latour's concept: In contrast to the descriptions or illustrations, the transferred seeds or living specimens in the gardens were not immutable mobiles – their sizes were not unchanged. The living plant in the garden had a notable disadvantage compared to representational forms: Its appearance changed depending on the season and local conditions of cultivation, which makes unambiguous classification more difficult. These changing conditions, however, expanded the stock of varietals, which greatly stimulated the discussion about the species. While species identification and taxonomy served as justification for the gardens for a long time, from the 19th century onwards botanists were fascinated with questions about the cause of hybridization and changes among different climatic conditions. The garden had become a testing laboratory where it was possible to observe a plant's changes under variable living conditions rather than its existence in its natural habitat.

    Economy and domination: Imperial and global knowledge spaces

    Botany has always been influenced by economic and feudal aspects – although this was hardly discussed by botanists themselves and older historiography. As early as the 16th century, the first gardens did not concentrate on medicinal plants for doctors in training, but on expanding the plant inventory according to territorial references. For example, the botanical garden in Padua – which was under control of as part of the University of Padua – benefitted from the Venetian Republic's trade links stretching as far as the eastern Mediterranean. Only in the first century of its existence, plants were introduced to the Padua garden from and the Black Sea area (the ).25 In Leiden, probably the most important colonial botanical site of the 17th century, the expansion of the plant inventory accompanied the activity of the overseas trading companies.26 From the 16th century and over the course of several decades, a botanist's work profile that was oriented towards the entire global space emerged. At the latest since Carl von Linné, traveling, collecting, and botanizing overseas were no longer merely incidental activities of travelers dedicated to missionary work, trade, or diplomacy, but turned into independent fields of activity. At the same time, the botanists involved in expeditions and the gardens were part of new global interests aimed at the economic distribution of bio–resources: Tropical crops such as the clove tree (Syzygium aromaticum (L.), Merill et L. M. Perry) or the nutmeg tree (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) illustrate the history of crop transfer and the related role of botanical gardens as points of transfer. Until 1770, these two spice plants grew exclusively on the . The monopoly, which was stringently guarded by the Dutch, was penetrated by the French transfer via the Isle de France ("Garten Pamplemousses," today "Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolanin Botanical Garden on Mauritius") to the West Indies (the ).27 In 1802, the British succeeded in acquiring several thousand nutmeg plants in the Moluccas and brought them to the newly established botanical garden of St. George on. From there, the plants were brought to the overseas English possessions within only a few decades. As president of the Royal Society Joseph Banks (1743–1820), a fellow traveler of the first Cook expedition, turned the Kew Botanical Gardens near London into a center for the economically important transfer of plants.28 At the end of the 19th century, there were already 102 colonial gardens of the British Empire (they accounted for 38 percent of all gardens worldwide),29 which also affected the cultivation of plants in the colonial areas. The director of the Royal Botanic Garden in (1821) in () had the run–down coffee plantations cultivated with plants that promised higher yields. Between 1873 and 1876, an inconceivable number of more than three million seedlings of Cinchonia pubescens (cinchona bark) was delivered to local growers, massively interfering with the island's ecological and economic system.

    Botanical gardens preserved and managed the knowledge of the species with the help of herbaria and living specimens. But they were more than just spatial "evidence centers"; they served as centers of exchange and, in a sense, as "shunting stations" for seeds in the worldwide transfer of crops. Accordingly, they were regarded as botanical centers of calculation of imperialism. Moreover, in Kew – as we have known since Brockway's study30 – botanical expertise served to attain profit and power and thus supported an industrial-economical world system of empire. The activities of Kew Gardens, for example, have enabled the tea plant to be successfully transferred from China via Kew to . Following London's example, the Berlin Botanical Garden at Dahlem was also established as a hub in the network of German protectorates. From around 1890, the "Botanical Central Office for the German Colonies" in Berlin equipped its subsidiary facilities in (), (), the experimental gardens at Misahöhe and the () and in () with plants and staff trained in BerlinVersuchsgarten in Victoria, Kamerun: Pfeffer, Vanille, Muskatnuss. All shipments of plants to and from the German colonies were supervised from the Berlin Garden, which functioned as a link between science and colonial economic interests.

    For a long time, the transfers focused on unknown plants. In contrast to this, during 21st century, those immigrants (neophytes) have gained increasing interest that emerge undetected as a result of globalization and have come to dominate or even proven to be invasive with respect to native floras. Likewise, the garden has recently been assigned a role which is increasingly similar to a Noah's Ark. It not only implements and demonstrates plant protection itself, but also follows the development of endangered species and, at the same time, ensures public acceptance of new protective measures through different media channels.

    The manifestation of theoretical concepts in botanical gardens

    The theory of the order of the plant kingdom is not only created, but also shown in the arrangement of a botanical garden. Accordingly, nature is designed in different forms, following the systematic concept of plants. In early gardens circles with one large and several small rectangles inscribed dominated. This form corresponded with the doctrine of the elements,31 which represented a complex system in which the macrocosm referred to the microcosm. The combination of circle and rectangle as it was realized in Padua32Übersichtsplan des botanischen Gartens zu Padua 1591 had a symbolic and knowledge–constitutive meaning: According to Plato, the circle referred to the perfection of the cosmos. At the same time, the design was also anchored in architectural and practical proportion theory, which followed geometric-mathematical relations and presented harmony. Quadrinity pointed to the cosmos, which, in contrast to chaos, was shown as ordered. Simple geometric shapes (either rectangles or squares) prevailed in the botanical garden until the 18th century.33

    Initially, the plants were processed alphabetically or according to their medical efficacy. Herman Boerhaave (1668–1738) was the first garden director to insert the cultivated species in the Leiden garden according to their family affiliation in rows, i.e. in relation to a plant systematics.34 During the 18th century, Linné's system prevailed over competing classification methods and thus determined the design of the botanical garden. Geometrically coherent rows were arranged in the garden complex. The guided perceptions in the garden were based on a rigid classification system in which each plant was clearly assigned its place, in the book as in the actual garden. This unambiguity corresponded to the idea of an unchangeable nature (constancy of the species), which only changed in the 19th century, when the knowledge on the species increased.35

    Both the rows in the garden and the book illustrations suggested an overview, similar to apodemics (instructions for traveling) that propagated the view from above, e.g. from the city towers to the topography of the city or from the peaks of the mountains, which were "conquered" by natural scientists from the end of the 18th century.36 Through this cultivation technique a detailed register was created, an inventory of enumerables, of fragments, and of plants in rows. Synthesis, on the other hand, only became possible when the plants were assigned to actual geographical–ecological units and thus to a collective, to a plant community. This concept was propagated in particular by Alexander von Humboldt (1769–1859), to name the most important representative of plant geography. It was taken up aesthetically for the first time in the design of the English Garden in Munich in the 19th century. Geometric shapes were replaced by curved lines and transformed, as in Jena and Berlin.37 Here, the gardens had previously been schematically divided into rectangular surfaces and areas similar to landscape parks. During the course of the industrialization and the densification of cities, these gardens became the green lungs of the urban space.

    The renunciation of geometric arrangements, however, required a spatial expansion. Many botanical gardens had to be relocated from center of cities to their peripheries in the search for more space. In Berlin, where the university – newly founded in 1810 – took over the garden managed by the academy, the relocation of the botanical garden from to took place around the turn of the 19th century (1897–1910). The plant geographer Adolf Engler (1844–1930) conceptualized groups referring to Europe, Asia, and North America in their transcontinental span. The garden made plant geography the basis of the plant arrangement in an unprecedented spatial extension. The brainchild of Anton Kerner of Marilaun (1831–1898)38 was the first attempt to present the vegetation of the Tyrolean Alps en miniature in the garden in 1860. Adolf Engler transferred this idea to the temperate zones of the entire northern hemisphere and created the "alpinum"Alpinum Zentralalpen.39 Anton Kerner introduced this garden section, popular today in many gardens as a separate cluster, to the Innsbruck Botanical Garden and transformed it into the center of internationally renowned Alpine studies. However, from now on the showcase and the experimental space started to fall apart. In the Innsbrucker garden, the mountain ranges of were clearly depicted in the rock garden, and long-standing series of tests were set up at various experimental sites and different heights to document the cultivation of alpine plants as a consequence of environmental and non–heritable changes. This resulted in debates on the controversial hypothesis regarding the inheritance of acquired traits.40

    Like museums, botanical gardens presented their objects outside their respective environments and instead placed them in knowledge–based contexts that had been redefined from the 19th century. These included geographical and functional groupings (woody plants, succulents, aquatic plants, etc.) according to their technical use and to habitat–related contexts. During the mid–19th century, the most species–rich gardens in the world (, Kew in London, and Berlin) had no less than 25,000 plant species. By this time, the botanical garden was thrown into crisis, which resulted in debates surrounding its reform. Anton Kerner, who worked in Innsbruck and at the botanical garden in Vienna, pleaded for a representative selection instead of a misguided accumulation of species.41 According to Kerner, the garden had to meet the challenges of new botanical disciplines such as physiology and morphology. Following the classical garden model, most botanical gardens in Europe still concentrated on taxonomy.42 In contrast to this, Kerner suggested that gardens should provide the living material for morphological and physiological demonstrations and investigations and thus serve as a kind of resource pool. Instead of providing plant material for use in the laboratory, Kerner considered the garden itself a laboratory, a field of experimentation. Some gardens had already served this purpose from the 17th century when botanists specifically identified the acclimatization of plants as a priority topic of investigation. This line of research was extended in the 19th century to include location issues of the plants.

    As with anything that can benefit from the typically huge spatial dimensions in the , botanical gardens which were created there became frontrunners. The "Huntington Botanical Gardens" founded in 1904 were established in (Los Angeles County) by creating a park consisting of 15 different gardens, including a desert garden, a Japanese garden, and a palm garden.43 In the 20th century, botanical gardens were faced with the challenge of explaining the concept of evolution by showcasing different stages of plant development. In the evolution of the system of flowering plants was presented by showing individual groups of plants marked in circles with connecting paths between these units which represented the lines of development.44

    Dissemination and appropriation

    University teaching regulations from 1609 show the extent to which their education was based on visibility:

    Moreover, since most of the medical teaching only reveals itself when recognized through visual inspection and scrutiny with the eyes, the lowest professor [tertiarius] of this college takes the students out into the open when the weather is favorable and assembles them to get to know the various species of plants [...] where he offers them [the students] the possibility of observing and evaluating for themselves.45

    Learning to look and to concentrate on individual traits resulted in the acquisition of theoretical–abstract knowledge in a vivid way. Non-verbal knowledge (form and recognition of the plant) was related to verbal knowledge (naming). For a long time, memorization was the main element of education. In this respect, the garden as a space of structured knowledge in its ordered totality offered an advantage over the open terrain in its bewildering diversity, since each learning unit could take place repeatedly and in a focused manner. Labels with numbers usually affixed to the plants, which corresponded to the names published in the garden catalogues, acted as memory triggers.46 Soon, however, these were replaced by name plates made of sheet metal or wood. To this day, they remain part of the natural inventory of botanical gardens, referring to names and thus belonging to the eminently important practice of recording and recognizing plants.

    As late as 1824, the Berlin botanist Heinrich F. Link (1767–1851) favored the garden as a place of learning over the open country in the chapter on methodology of his work Elementa Philosophiae Botanicae47, even dismissing student excursions as useless. In the botanical garden, it was possible to acquire knowledge of plant names, plant parts, and their systematic arrangement under optimal conditions. According to Link, the botanical garden was the best learning source, superior to others because it stood out amongst the range of various non–verbal media characteristic for classical botany.

    In the botanical garden, the arrangement of plants guides the viewer's perception. Over the course of the 19th century, when natural sciences increasingly gained interpretative authority among the public, the botanical garden gradually assumed the role of a public educational institution. Specifically, scientifically secured knowledge was made accessible to laypersons, primarily the educated middle classes. Like all other sites of knowledge transfer, the garden was now equipped with display boards on which individual plant species or phenomena were presented in a compact form. And yet, the new audience not only wanted to be instructed, but also sought edification, enjoyment, and entertainment. With its exoticism in the new glass and tropical houses, especially the large palm housesPalmenhaus Schönbrunn, Wien, the botanical garden was perfectly suited to meeting this demand. In addition, it also served as a venue, presenting a world dominated by imperialist Europe.

    The garden made it possible for visitors to observe the life cycle of a plant, from seed to flower. Within the context of this cycle, a unique flower often represented a special event – and was presented as such by the gardens from the 19th  century. With attractions such as the titan arumTitanwurz (Amorphophallus titanum) from (the largest flower in the world from the standpoint of flower biology) gardens continue to hold the public's fascination.

    Marianne Klemun



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    1. ^ On the concept of knowledge spaces in general, see Ophir / Shapin, Place of Knowledge 1991, pp. 3-21 as well as Ash, Räume des Wissens 2000, pp. 235–241; see also: Agar, Making Space 1998.
    2. ^ Martin Möbius, for example, dealt with the history of gardens in his book under the heading "Hilfsmittel" (Aids). Cf. Möbius, Geschichte der Botanik 1937.
    3. ^ For a rough overview from a cultural studies perspective: Müller-Wille, Botanischer Garten 2005; Cittadino, Botany 2009; and Klemun, Wissenswandel 2013; Tomasi, Gardens of Knowledge 2005, pp. 85–129.
    4. ^ This was followed by foundations in Basel (1588), Heidelberg (1593), Copenhagen (1600), Strasbourg (1620), Jena (1629), Uppsala (1655), Edinburgh (1680), Halle (1698), Montpellier (1699), Cambridge (c. 1702), Leuven (1738), Madrid (1753), Vienna (1754), Bonn (1818), Berlin (1810), etc. See: Wagenitz, Botanische Gärten 2002, pp. 57–73.
    5. ^ See especially: Atkins, Chelsea Physic Garden 2007.
    6. ^ See: Lack, Botanischer Garten 2011.
    7. ^ In Vienna, for example, there was a university garden and a court garden in Schönbrunn: Cf. Klemun, Botanische Gärten 2000.
    8. ^ Fallen, A Botanic Garden for the Nation 2007.
    9. ^ For an overview of the most important gardens in the world, see: Monem, Botanic Gardens 2007.
    10. ^ Among the extensive literature on Kew Gardens, see especially Desmond, History of Kew 1995; Desmond / Prance, The History 1998; as well as Paterson, The Gardens at Kew 2008.
    11. ^ See in general: Burke, Papier und Marktgeschrei 2001.
    12. ^ Cited in: Vogellehner, Geschichte des Botanischen Gartens der Universität Freiburg 1996, p. 81.
    13. ^ This reference is stressed above all in all popular representations.
    14. ^ See esp.: Findlen, Possessing Nature 1994, esp. p. 67f.; Findlen, Courting Nature 1996, pp. 57–74.
    15. ^ Minges, Das Sammlungswesen 1993; Grote, Macrocosmos 1994.
    16. ^ Yates, Gedächtnis und Erinnern 1990.
    17. ^ The botanist Nikolaus Jacquin, who worked in Vienna, referred in particular to the eye: "Scilicet per verba non eodem omnes modo ea, quae oculis percipimus, exponere solemus; nec magis alii ex nostris rerum conspectarum enarrationibus nostro ubique afficiuntur modo, speciesque semper sibi formant easdem" ["But of course we cannot all express in words in the same way what we grasp with our eyes." Transl. Christopher Reid, PhD]. Jacquin, Flora austriaca 1773, n.p.
    18. ^ Cf. Müller-Wille, Botanik und weltweiter Handel 1999; Klemun, Botanische Gärten und Pflanzengeographie 2000.
    19. ^ Latour, Drawing Things Together 2000.
    20. ^ See also in detail and with continued relevance: Arber, Herbals 1912.
    21. ^ Müller-Wille, Botanik und weltweiter Handel 1999, p. 156ff.
    22. ^ These criteria are introduced in the inventories of plant collections. On the first inventories in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland, see: Schwerdtfeger, Pflanzensammlungen 2002.
    23. ^ The publication of inventories also increased the respective reputation of each garden. At first, they contained mainly alphabetical inventory lists, but soon pictures of the gardens were added. Cf. esp.: Feuerstein-Herz, Garten und Buch 2011.
    24. ^ Mularczyk, Geschichte 2009, pp. 56.
    25. ^ For more on this, see: Minelli, The Botanical Garden of Padua 1995, and Frigo, Der Botanische Garten von Padua 2011, pp. 81–92.
    26. ^ On Leiden: Stearn, The Influence of Leyden on Botany 1962, pp. 137–159.
    27. ^ Cf. esp. Grove, Green Imperialismus 1995.
    28. ^ Cf. esp. Brockway, Science and Colonial Expansion 1979.
    29. ^ Cf. Desmond, The History 1995.
    30. ^ Brockway, Science and Colonial Expansion 1979.
    31. ^ See: Böhme, Feuer 1996.
    32. ^ See: Frigo, Der Botanische Garten 2011, p. 81f.
    33. ^ The garden drawings vividly demonstrate this, as for example the garden in Pisa, which consisted of eight square fields: Tilli, Catalogus 1723.
    34. ^ He followed the Tournefort system (petal characteristics), see also: Feuerstein-Herz, Garten und Buch 2011, p. 306 and esp. Boerhaave, Index plantarum 1710; Boerhaave, Index alter plantarum 1720.
    35. ^ Lepenies explains this change from natural history as a descriptive science to the history of nature by the pressure of experience (Erfahrungsdruck). See: Lepenies, Das Ende der Naturgeschichte 1976.
    36. ^ Stagl, A History of Curiosity 1995.
    37. ^ Lack, Botanischer Garten 2011.
    38. ^ Ennobled and knighted in 1877. In the following referenced without his noble title  as Anton Kerner.
    39. ^ Hagemann / Zepernick, Der Botanische Garten Berlin-Dahlem 1992; Zepernick / Karlson, Berlins Botanischer Garten 1979.
    40. ^ Kerner, Cultur der Alpenpflanzen 1864; Klemun, Space, State, Territory 2008.
    41. ^ Kerner, Die botanischen Gärten 1874.
    42. ^ Heywood, The Changing Role 1987.
    43. ^ Hertricht, The Huntington Botanical Gardens 2003.
    44. ^ This followed the Russian biologist Armen Tahtažan (1910–2009). Cf. Vogellehner, Botanischer Garten 1996, p. 123.
    45. ^ Cited in Vogellehner, Botanischer Garten 1996, p. 73.
    46. ^ See: Klemun, Botanische Gärten und Pflanzengeographie 2000.
    47. ^ Link, Elementa 1824.

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    : The Botanical Garden, in: Europäische Geschichte Online (EGO), hg. vom Leibniz-Institut für Europäische Geschichte (IEG), Mainz European History Online (EGO), published by the Leibniz Institute of European History (IEG), Mainz 2019-06-03. URL: URN: urn:nbn:de:0159-2019031118 [JJJJ-MM-TT][YYYY-MM-DD].

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